Aristotle

Roman copy in marble of a Greek bronze [[Bust (sculpture)|bust]] of Aristotle by [[Lysippos]], c. 330 BC, with modern [[alabaster]] [[mantle (clothing)|mantle]] Aristotle (; ''Aristotélēs'', ; 384–322 BC) was a Greek philosopher and polymath during the Classical period in Ancient Greece. Taught by Plato, he was the founder of the Lyceum, the Peripatetic school of philosophy, and the Aristotelian tradition. His writings cover many subjects including physics, biology, zoology, metaphysics, logic, ethics, aesthetics, poetry, theatre, music, rhetoric, psychology, linguistics, economics, politics, meteorology, geology and government. Aristotle provided a complex synthesis of the various philosophies existing prior to him. It was above all from his teachings that the West inherited its intellectual lexicon, as well as problems and methods of inquiry. As a result, his philosophy has exerted a unique influence on almost every form of knowledge in the West and it continues to be a subject of contemporary philosophical discussion.

Little is known about his life. Aristotle was born in the city of Stagira in Northern Greece. His father, Nicomachus, died when Aristotle was a child, and he was brought up by a guardian. At seventeen or eighteen years of age he joined Plato's Academy in Athens and remained there until the age of thirty-seven (c. 347 BC). Shortly after Plato died, Aristotle left Athens and, at the request of Philip II of Macedon, tutored Alexander the Great beginning in 343 BC. He established a library in the Lyceum which helped him to produce many of his hundreds of books on papyrus scrolls. Though Aristotle wrote many elegant treatises and dialogues for publication, only around a third of his original output has survived, none of it intended for publication.

Aristotle's views profoundly shaped medieval scholarship. The influence of physical science extended from Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages into the Renaissance, and were not replaced systematically until the Enlightenment and theories such as classical mechanics were developed. Some of Aristotle's zoological observations found in his biology, such as on the hectocotyl (reproductive) arm of the octopus, were disbelieved until the 19th century. He also influenced Judeo-Islamic philosophies (800–1400) during the Middle Ages, as well as Christian theology, especially the Neoplatonism of the Early Church and the scholastic tradition of the Catholic Church. Aristotle was revered among medieval Muslim scholars as "The First Teacher", and among medieval Christians like Thomas Aquinas as simply "The Philosopher", while the poet Dante called him “the master of those who know". His works contain the earliest known formal study of logic, and were studied by medieval scholars such as Peter Abelard and John Buridan.

Aristotle's influence on logic continued well into the 19th century. In addition, his ethics, though always influential, gained renewed interest with the modern advent of virtue ethics.

Aristotle has been called "the father of logic", "the father of biology", "the father of political science", "the father of zoology", "the father of embryology", "the father of natural law", "the father of scientific method", "the father of rhetoric", "the father of psychology", "the father of realism", "the father of criticism", "the father of individualism", "the father of teleology", and "the father of meteorology". * "the father of political science": N. Jayapalan, Aristotle, p 12., Jonathan Wolff, Lectures on the History of Moral and Political Philosophy, p 48. * the "father of zoology": Josef Rudolf Winkler, A Book of Beetles, p 12 * "the father of embryology": D.R. Khanna, Text Book Of Embryology, p 2 * "the father of natural law": * "the father of scientific method": , Riccardo Pozzo (2004) [https://books.google.com/?id=vayp8jxcPr0C&pg=PA41 ''The impact of Aristotelianism on modern philosophy'']. CUA Press. p. 41. * "the father of rhetoric": , Bizzell, P. and Bruce Herzberg. (2000). ''The Rhetorical Tradition: Readings from Classical Times to the Present.'' NY: Bedford/St. Martin's. p. 3. * "the father of psychology": Margot Esther Borden, Psychology in the Light of the East, p 4 * "the father of realism": Russell L. Hamm, Philosophy and Education: Alternatives in Theory and Practice, p 58 * "the father of criticism": Nagendra Prasad, Personal Bias in Literary Criticism: Dr. Johnson, Matthew Arnold, T.S. Eliot, p 70. Lord Henry Home Kames, Elements of Criticism, p 237. * "the father of meteorology": * "the father of individualism":Allan Gotthelf, Gregory Salmieri, A Companion to Ayn Rand, p 325. * "the father of teleology":Malcolm Owen Slavin, Daniel H. Kriegman, The Adaptive Design of the Human Psyche: Psychoanalysis, Evolutionary Biology, and the Therapeutic Process, p 292.}} Provided by Wikipedia
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  1. 121
    by Aristote
    Desclée de Brouwer 1970, cop. 1970
  2. 122
    by Aristote
    Les Belles Lettres 1926
  3. 123
    by Aristote
    Clarendon Press C 1993
  4. 124
    by Aristote
    Clarendon Press C 1994
  5. 125
  6. 126
    by Aristote
    les Belles lettres 2002
  7. 127
    by Aristote
    J. Vrin 2015, cop. 2015
  8. 128
    by Aristote
    Desclée de Brouwer 1965
  9. 129
    by Aristote
    Flammarion DL 2014
  10. 130
    by Aristote
    J. Vrin 1966, cop. 1966
  11. 131
    by Aristote
    Les Belles Lettres 1982
  12. 132
    by Aristote
    Clarendon Press 2009
  13. 133
    by Aristote
    Les Belles Lettres 1956
  14. 134
    by Aristote
    e Typographeo Clarendoniano 1959
  15. 135
  16. 136
    by Aristote
    E. J. Brill 1975, cop. 1975
  17. 137
    by Aristote
    Les Belles Lettres 1932
  18. 138
    by Aristote
    Flammarion impr. 1993, cop. 1990
  19. 139
    by Aristote
    Les Belles Lettres 1972
  20. 140
    by Aristote
    W. Heinemann 1961

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